Pigmentation is caused by the over-production of melanin (natural skin pigment) and unprotected sun exposure, and appears on the face, neck and hands. This excessive darkening of the skin from its usual colour is common and may cause skin to look dull.
Superficial Pigment Spots (Lentigines)
These are flat, brown, epidermal lesions, with clearly defined edges. They typically appear on sun-exposed skin: face and neck, hands, forearms, and shoulders.
Melasma is is characterised by tan or brown patches on the forehead, cheeks, nose and upper brow. Age, combined with pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and sun damage are thought to be contributory factors in the development of melasma.
Topical Treatment Of Lentigines & Melasma
Topical skin lighteners are used in combination with retinoids to reduce the degree of pigmentation.
As sun and light exposure are common reasons for the appearance of melasma, a broad spectrum mineral sunscreen containing Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide is essential, and should be used twice daily regardless of the weather.
There are clinical treatments available, and the options offered at Rexults Clinic are listed below.
Deep (Dermal Macules)
Typically, these are clusters of discreet black spots in the cheeks. They usually appear in females in the 20’s and 30’s and darken with each pregnancy. Topical whitening products do not reach these spots.